The Republic of Kenya is a unitary State. Kenya won its independence from British colonial rule on 12 December 1963. The country has a multi-party political system whose hallmark is parliamentary democracy. The Parliament of Kenya is bicameral house consisting of the National Assembly and the Senate. The National Assembly has in total 349 members plus the Speaker who is an ex-officio. Article 95 of the Constitution establishes that the National Assembly shall consist of the following:- two hundred and ninety (290) members, each elected by the registered voters of single member constituencies; forty-seven (47) women, each elected by the registered voters of the counties, each county constituting a single member constituency; twelve (12) members nominated by parliamentary political parties according to their proportion of members of the National Assembly in accordance with Article 90, to represent special interests including the youth, persons with disabilities and workers; and the Speaker, who is an ex officio member.
The Senate consists of 67 members plus the Speaker, who is an ex-officio member. Article 98 of the Constitution establishes that the Senate shall consist of the following:- Forty-seven (47) members each elected by the registered voters of the counties, each county constituting a single member constituency; Sixteen (16) women members who shall be nominated by political parties according to their proportion of members of the Senate elected under clause (a) in accordance with Article 90; Two members (2), being one man and one woman, representing the youth; Two (2) members, being one man and one woman, representing persons with disabilities; and The Speaker, who shall be an ex officio member.
The members of the National Assembly are referred as Members of Parliament (MP) while the Members of the Senate are referred as Senators. Both the MPs and Senators serve a 5-year term.
The President of the Republic of Kenya, together with the Deputy-President and the Cabinet Secretaries comprise the executive. The President shall nominate and, with the approval of the National Assembly, appoint Cabinet Secretaries. A Cabinet Secretary shall not be a Member of Parliament. The President is elected directly for a 5-year term. In order to win, a candidate must garner 50% plus 1 votes and 25% in half of 47 counties.
Parliamentary politics in Kenya is open, free, fair and highly competitive field. Kenya has indeed held all its general elections – presidential, parliamentary, and local authorities every 5 years as required by the Constitution, without fail since the country attained independence in 1963. On March 4, 2013, Kenya went to a general election, the first ever under the new constitution which was promulgated in August, 2010.
The current President of Kenya is His Excellency Dr William Samoei Ruto, C.G.H. who was sworn in on September 13, 2022, as the Fifth President of the Republic of Kenya. The Deputy President is His Excellency Rigathi Gachagua.