Facts about Kenya

As a safari and travel destination, Kenya is unrivaled. An ancient land born of ice and fire, such are the extremes of the Kenyan climate, which ranges from tropical heat to glacial ice, that it has formed a diversity of habitats found nowhere else on Earth.

As to geography, Kenya offers a vast mosaic of lion-gold Savannah, rolling grasslands, ancient rain forests and volcanic plains, Kenya rises from the idyllic shores of the Indian Ocean to the snow-capped peaks of Mount Kenya which, at 5,199 meters above sea level, is an extinct volcano some three and a half million years old. A natural paradise, Kenya is also a cultural microcosm and the age-old ‘cradle of mankind’. Kenya’s people, united under the green, black and red of the national flag, comprise more than 50 ethnic groups and their warmth and hospitality is best expressed in the national motto; ‘Harambee ‘; meaning ‘let’s all pull together’.

Map of Kenya (courtesy of African Horizons)

Official name
The Republic of Kenya. Kenya is named after Mount Kenya or ‘Kirinyaga’, the ‘Mountain of Whiteness’.

Capital city
Nairobi (Nyrobi meaning ‘the place of cool waters’ in Maa). The highest city in East Africa (1,700 m), modern and fast growing, Nairobi has over 4 million inhabitants (estimated).

Major cities
Mombasa is the coastal capital and the largest port on the East African coast.
Other major cities include: Kisumu, Eldoret, Nakuru, Nyeri and Machakos.

Area
Kenya covers an area of 583,000 sq km, 13,400km of which is inland water, including part of Lake Victoria. The coastline is 536 km long.

Borders
Kenya is bordered by Ethiopia, Sudan, South Sudan, Somalia, Uganda and Tanzania.

Climate
The coast is hot with an average daytime temperature of 27-31 degrees centigrade whilst the average daytime temperature in Nairobi is 21-26 degrees centigrade. Nairobi can become cold enough for coats and fleeces; July and August mark the Kenyan winter. Temperatures elsewhere depend on altitude. Typically, January-February is dry, March-May is wet, June-September is dry, October-December is wet.

Population
38 million (2009 est.), 42.5% of whom are under 14 years old, with a growth rate of 2.56%, one of the highest in the world.

Ethnic makeup
There are over 40 tribal groups distinguished by two major language groups: Bantu and Nilotic. The largest tribes of the Bantu are the Kikuyu, Meru, Gusii, Embu, Akamba, Luyha and Mijikenda. The largest tribes of the Nilotic are the Maasai, Turkana, Samburu, Pokot, Luo and Kalenjin. A third group made up of Cushitic-speaking peoples includes the El-Molo, Somali, Rendille and Galla. The coastal region is the home of the Swahili people.

Religion
Christianity, Hinduism, Sikhism and Islam.

Language
English (official), Kiswahili (national), multiple ethnic languages (Bantu, Cushitic and Nilotic language groups). Literacy: 85% of population over age 15 can read and write.

Currency
Kenya shilling (Ksh); slang ‘bob’.

Banking
Foreign currency can be changed at banks, foreign currency bureaux or hotels. Banks in major centres are open from 09.00 to 15.00 Mon-Fri. 09.00 to11.00 on the first and last Saturday of each month. Banks in coastal towns open and close half an hour earlier.

ATMs
ATMs are available country wide with 24-hour access. Most accept international VISA cards.

Credit cards
All major international cards are accepted.

Travellers’ cheques
Travellers’ Cheques are accepted at most banks, bureaux and hotels.

Tipping
Tipping is appreciated. Most hotels and restaurants include a 10% service charge.

Shopping and business hours
08.30 to 12.30 and 14.00 to 17.30 Mon-Sat. Many businesses work Saturday mornings.

Time
GMT +3 all year-round. Kenya maintains an almost constant 12 hours of daylight. Sunrise is typically 06.30 and sunset at 18.45.

Electricity
220-240 volts AC, with standard 13-amp three square-pin plugs.

Post offices
Opening hours are 08.00 to 17.00 weekdays and 09.00 to 12.00 on Saturdays. Stamps can be purchased at post offices, stationery and souvenir shops and hotels.

International telephone code: +254. Dial 000 followed by the required country code to dial out of the country.

Tourist Attractions
National Parks and Reserves
Kenya’s total wildlife conservation area is 44,359 sq km or 7.6 % of the total area. The main parks are: Aberdare National Park, Amboseli National Park, Hell’s Gate National Park, Lake Nakuru National Park, Meru National Park, Mount Elgon National Park, Mount Kenya National Park, Nairobi National Park, Tsavo East and Tsavo West National Park. One of the most popular tourist destinations, the Maasai Mara, is designated a National Reserve. There are two major marine parks: Mombasa Marine National Park and Malindi/Watamu National Park. Details on all Kenyan National Parks and Reserves can be obtained from: Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS) Tel: + 254 (0) 20 600800. Email: tourism@kws.org or www.kws.org

World Heritage sites
Fort Jesus, the Gedi Ruins, Koobi Fora, Mount Kenya, Hell’s Gate National Park and the Maasai Mara National Reserve.

Historical sites
Kenya has over 400 historical sites ranging from paleolithic remains, 14th century slave trading settlements, Islamic ruins and the 16th century Portuguese Fort Jesus.

Landscape
The landscape of Kenya is distinctly divided into two halves – the eastern half which slopes gently to the coral-backed seashore, and the western portion, which rises abruptly through a series of hills and plateaus to the Eastern Rift Valley. West of the Rift is a westward-sloping plateau, and the lowest part is covered by Lake Victoria. The highest point in the country is the snow-capped peak of Mount Kenya (5,199 m), the second highest mountain in Africa. The coastline extends some 536 km from the Tanzanian border in the southeast, to the Somali border in the northeast. The main rivers are the Athi/Galana and the Tana. The major lakes are: Lake Victoria, Turkana, Baringo, Naivasha, Magadi, Jipe, Bogoria, Nakuru and Elementaita.

Flora
Kenya’s flora is diverse. Coastal forests contain palm, mangrove, teak, copal and sandalwood trees. Forests of baobab, euphorbia and acacia trees cover the lowlands to an elevation of approximately 915 m. Extensive areas of savannah are interspersed with groves of acacia and papyrus, which characterize the terrain from 915 to 2,745 m above sea level. Bamboo and camphor are common in the dense rainforest of the eastern and southeastern mountain slopes. The alpine zone (above 3,550 m) contains many Senecio and Lobelia plants.

Fauna
There are 80 major animal species ranging from the ‘Big Five’ (elephant, buffalo, rhinoceros, lion and leopard) to tiny antelopes such as the dik-dik, which is slightly larger than a rabbit. At least 32 endemic species are endangered.

Avifauna
Kenya boasts around 1,137 species of birds. Spotting over 100 bird species in a day is not uncommon.

Visa and Health Certification
A valid passport, not expiring for at least six months, is required for entry into Kenya. A valid entry visa is also required and may be obtained in advance from the Kenyan Embassy or High Commission in your country of origin, or upon arrival in Kenya.

Health certification
A yellow fever vaccination certificate is required ONLY if you are arriving in Kenya from an infected area.

Vaccinations
A number of vaccinations are recommended for visitors to Kenya (check with your doctor in advance).

Malaria
Malaria is endemic in tropical Africa and protection against it is necessary.

Medical / Travel insurance
Travellers to Kenya are recommended to obtain medical / travel insurance prior to arrival.

Hospitals and doctors
A broad selection of highly qualified doctors, surgeons, and dentists exist in both Nairobi and Mombasa. Most lodges and hotels offer resident medical staff and maintain radio or telephone contact with the Flying Doctor Service, which specializes in air evacuations and emergency treatment in East Africa. Temporary membership is available. For further information contact: emergency@flydoc.org

Travelling to Kenya
Numerous international carriers serve Kenya, and Nairobi is the hub of the East African region. Kenya has two international airports: Jomo Kenyatta International Airport is half an hour’s drive from Nairobi’s city centre, and Mombasa’s Moi International Airport is even closer to the town centre. Most tourist hotels have minibuses to transport guests, and public buses serve both the Jomo Kenyatta and Moi airports. Taxis are readily available at both airports (officially regulated tariffs should be displayed).

Internal air travel
Frequent flights (both scheduled and charter) operate from Nairobi’s Wilson Airport and from Mombasa and Malindi to the main towns and national parks.

Do’s and don’ts
It is an offence to: smoke in a public place; urinate in public; sunbath topless; buy or take drugs; remove wildlife products from Kenya, export products made from elephant, rhino or sea turtle derivatives, or to remove coral. Swearing and blasphemy are inadvisable. Visitors are requested to stand when the Kenyan anthem is played, or the national flag raised or lowered. They are also advised that photographing the president without prior permission or any military installation is not permitted. Bond or bail can be granted at the police or magistrate’s discretion and all cases must be brought before a court of law.

Photography
It is considered courteous to ask people if you may take their picture before doing so. A small (token) payment for the photograph may be expected, rather more as a form of polite appreciation than anything else.